Root canal treatment (also referred to as root canal therapy or endodontic therapy) is made necessary when a cavity is allowed, through neglect, to reach all the way to the pulp (nerve inside the tooth). This is another reason why it is important to have regular checkups and cleanings in order to prevent and detect problems early. Sometimes deep restorations or trauma to a tooth may also cause the nerve to be damaged to the point where root canal therapy is needed. Once this occurs, the pulp becomes infected and the infection can even extend through the root tip and begin to eat away at the surrounding bone (this is an abscess). By the time the pulp is infected it must be treated and cannot heal on its own. It can even weaken the entire immune system. This is dangerous, not to mention very painful. Symptoms that the pulp has become infected may include pain, swelling, a bad taste in the mouth, pain or pressure when biting, as well as sensitivity to hot and/or cold, and sweets. Sometimes; however, no symptoms are apparent and the person is unaware of any problem until it is detected at a regular checkup.
A root canal is then performed to clean out the infected tooth pulp, and disinfect the canals of the tooth. The only other treatment would be to extract the tooth. Once the infection is resolved, the hollow area(s) of the root (the canal or canals) are filled in to prevent any further infection. Usually a core build-up and crown is recommended for restoring a tooth that has had root canal therapy.